The Spanish did establish the settlement of Chile in 1541, founded by Pedro de Valdivia. Each order set up networks of parishes in the various regions (provinces), sited in existing indigenous settlements, where Christian churches were built and where evangelization of the indigenous was based. , The life of seventeenth-century Mexican nun, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, renowned in her lifetime, has been portrayed in a 1990 Argentine film, I, the Worst of All and in a TV miniseries Juana Inés. Start studying Caribbean: Ch. The Franciscans arrived first in 1525 in a group of twelve, the Twelve Apostles of Mexico. The land included any Indigenous cities, towns, communities, or families that lived there. Many parts of the Americas soon came to be under the rule of Europeans, resulting in large migrations, exchange of … Up Next. These lands were often quite vast. Depending on the conditions in a jurisdiction, the position of factor/veedor was often eliminated, as well. Crown approval through the Council of the Indies was needed for the establishment of bishoprics, building of churches, appointment of all clerics. Peru was the last territory in the continent under Spanish rule, which ended on 9 December 1824 at the Battle of Ayacucho (Spanish rule continued until 1898 in Cuba and Puerto Rico). For four hundred years cannon power ruled the islands, guarding prized colonial … Informal commerce of the Spanish colonies with the Dutch islands. The United States took occupation of Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. MacIas, Rosario Marquez; MacÍas, Rosario Márquez (1995). Princeton University Press, 1984. To feed urban populations and mining workforces, small-scale farms (ranchos), (estancias), and large-scale enterprises (haciendas) emerged to fill the demand, especially for foodstuffs that Spaniards wanted to eat, most especially wheat. Inquisitional powers were initially vested in bishops, who could root out idolatry and heresy. 6 vols. According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, in 1769, was about 310,000 and had dropped to 25,000 by 1910. Start studying Caribbean: Ch. In the Americas, the first encomiendas were handed out by Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean. Exploitation Colony Colonies Caribbean Spanish.  To these political functions of the governor, it could be joined the military ones, according to military requirements, with the rank of Captain general. In the twentieth century, there have been a number of films depicting the life of Christopher Columbus. In Mexico, the Hernán Cortés and the men of his expedition founded of the port town of Veracruz in 1519 and constituted themselves as the town councilors, as a means to throw off the authority of the governor of Cuba, who did not authorize an expedition of conquest. Queen Isabel was the first monarch that laid the first stone for the protection of the indigenous peoples in her testament in which the Catholic monarch prohibited the enslavement of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Important indigenous crops that transformed Europe were the potato and maize, which produced abundant crops that led to the expansion of populations in Europe. The capital city of a viceroyalty became of the seat of the archbishop.  When the formal institution of the Inquisition was established in 1571, indigenous peoples were excluded from its jurisdiction on the grounds that they were neophytes, new converts, and not capable of understanding religious doctrine. The Jesuits were effective missionaries in frontier areas until their expulsion from Spain and its empire in 1767. Europeans immigrated from various parts of Spain, and also initially more men than women. The conquistadors originally organized it as a captaincy general within the Viceroyalty of Peru. Discusses all the major European powers in the Caribbean, but the Spanish Caribbean is foregrounded throughout. The crown separated them into the República de Indios.  Indigenous noblemen were particularly important in the early period of colonization, since the economy of the encomienda was initially built on the extraction of tribute and labor from the commoners in their communities. Since in central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica) and the highland Andes indigenous peoples had existing traditions of payment of tribute and required labor service, the Spanish could tap into these existing to extract wealth. Since their appointments were for life or the pleasure of the monarch, they had a continuity of power and authority that viceroys and captains-general lacked because of their shorter-term appointments. The early Caribbean proved a massive disappointment for Spaniards, who had hoped to find mineral wealth and exploitable indigenous populations. , Provinces in the Spanish Empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). Other imports were figs, apricots, cherries, pears, and peaches among others. Volumes 1–4 focus on autochthonous societies, the 16th century, slave societies, and the 19th century, respectively. The crown aimed to prevent the formation of an aristocracy in the Indies not under crown control. , The first mainland explorations by Spaniards were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. Maya society under colonial rule: The collective enterprise of survival. "Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. La llave de las Indias. Labra wrote widely about the Spanish colonies, not only those in the Caribbean. The conquest of central Mexico sparked further Spanish conquests, following the pattern of conquered and consolidated regions being the launching point for further expeditions. During the Spanish colonial period in the Americas (1492–1832), about two million Spanish settlers migrated to the newly acquired territory, and a further 3.5 million people migrated to the Americas between 1850 and 1950. Mounted indigenous warriors were significant foes for Spaniards. Spanish colonization. But it still leaves Spain as the major colonial power in the West Indies.  In Peru, the indigenous Amerindian pre-contact population of around 6.5 million declined to 1 million by the early 17th century. In Hispaniola, the indigenous Taíno pre-contact population before the arrival of Columbus of several hundred thousand had declined to sixty thousand by 1509. #Cuba #PuertoRico #DominicanRepublicFor video topic suggestions email me at firstname.lastname@example.org ! The Franciscans took over some former Jesuit missions and continued the expansion of areas incorporated into the empire. Farriss, Nancy Marguerite. Spanish explorations of other islands in the Caribbean and what turned out to be the mainland of South and Central America occupied them for over two decades. The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. Mining regions in both Mexico were remote, outside the zone of indigenous settlement in central and southern Mexico Mesoamerica, but mines in Zacatecas (founded 1548) and Guanajuato (founded 1548) were key hubs in the colonial economy. Although Spaniards had hoped to find vast quantities of gold, the discovery of large quantities of silver became the motor of the Spanish colonial economy, a major source of income for the Spanish crown, and transformed the international economy. They were predominantly criollos (Americas-born people of European ancestry, mostly Spanish or Portuguese), bourgeois and influenced by liberalism and in some cases with military training in the mother country. They were aggressive in making their investment pay, alienating the indigenous populations and Spaniards alike.  The story of Doña Marina, also known as Malinche, was the subject of a Mexican TV miniseries in 2018. In Mexico, the crown established the General Indian Court (Juzgado General de Indios), which heard disputes affecting individual indigenous as well as indigenous communities. The Spanish colonies were late to exploit slave labor in the production of sugarcane, particularly on Cuba. Cumaná in Venezuela was the first permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the mainland Americas, in 1501 by Franciscan friars, but due to successful attacks by the indigenous people, it had to be refounded several times, until Diego Hernández de Serpa's foundation in 1569. As with many other royal posts, these positions were sold, starting in 1677.  For the conquest era, two names of Spaniards are generally known because they led the conquests of high indigenous civilizations, Hernán Cortés, leader of the expedition that conquered the Aztecs of Central Mexico, and Francisco Pizarro, leader of the conquest of the Inca in Peru. Sort by: Top Voted.  Even by the mid-1510s, the western Caribbean was largely unexplored by Spaniards.  In the Andes, Viceroy Francisco de Toledo revived the indigenous rotary labor system of the mita to supply labor for silver mining. Among the most notable expeditions are Hernando de Soto into southeast North America, leaving from Cuba (1539-42); Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to northern Mexico (1540-42), and Gonzalo Pizarro to Amazonia, leaving from Quito, Ecuador (1541-42). Marrero, Leví.  But not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. The Spanish took advantage of a recent civil war between the factions of the two brothers Emperor Atahualpa and Huáscar, and the enmity of indigenous nations the Incas had subjugated, such as the Huancas, Chachapoyas, and Cañaris. First published in 1978. Vol. The treasury officials were appointed by the king, and were largely independent of the authority of the governor. , After the reign of Philip II, the municipal offices, including the councilors, were auctioned to alleviate the need for money of the Crown, even the offices could also be sold, which became hereditary, so that the government of the cities went on to hands of urban oligarchies. Viceroys served as the vice-patron of the Catholic Church, including the Inquisition, established in the seats of the viceroyalties (Mexico City and Lima). This monumental historical geography provides a comprehensive overview of colonial Cuban history. The crown set the indigenous communities legally apart from Spaniards (as well as Blacks), who comprised the República de Españoles, with the creation of the República de Indios. Although there were restrictions of appointees' ties to local elite society and participation in the local economy, they acquired dispensations from the cash-strapped crown. Chipman, Donald E. and Joseph, Harriett Denise. Among the foodstuffs that became staples in European cuisine and could be grown there were tomatoes, squashes, bell peppers, and to a lesser extent in Europe chili peppers; also nuts of various kinds: Walnuts, cashews, pecans, and peanuts. Also valuable as a guide to archival sources. The Plan of Iguala was part of the peace treaty to establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico. During the first half of the sixteenth century, Spanish colonists conducted raids throughout the Caribbean, bringing captives from Central America, northern South America, and Florida back to Hispaniola and other Spanish settlements.  This direct correspondence of the Audiencia with the Council of the Indies made it possible for the Council to give the Audiencia direction on general aspects of government.. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. However, a sharp split existed between those born in Europe, \"peninsulars,\" and those born in the Americas, creoles.  These formal arrangements between Spain and Portugal and the pope were ignored by other European powers. The crown had authority to draw the boundaries for dioceses and parishes. Drawing depicting the destruction of the Tainos by the Spanish, including attacks by dogs, as shown in the upper left hand corner of the drawing. The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile and spearheaded by the Spanish conquistadors. During the Napoleonic Peninsular War in Europe between France and Spain, assemblies called juntas were established to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain. The Federation of the West Indies was created - included many Caribbean colonies. Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth in association with the United States. The other was the presence or absence of an exploitable resource for the enrichment of settlers. The Spanish Caribbean and the Atlantic World in the Long Sixteenth Century breaks new ground in articulating the early Spanish Caribbean as a distinct and diverse group of colonies loosely united under Spanish rule for roughly a century prior to the establishment of other European colonies. The main motivations for colonial expansion were profit through resource extraction and the spread of Catholicism through indigenous conversions. Please subscribe or login. In 1623 the English occupied part of Saint Christopher (Saint Kitts), and in 1625 they occupied Barbados. , As the empire expanded into areas of less dense indigenous populations, the crown created a chain of presidios, military forts or garrisons, that provided Spanish settlers protection from Indian attacks. Cane sugar imported from the Old World was the high value, low bulk export product that became the bulwark of tropical economies of the Caribbean islands and coastal Tierra Firme (the Spanish Main), as well as Portuguese Brazil. "Not a Man of Contradiction: Zumárraga as Protector and Inquisitor of the Indigenous People of Central Mexico." Cattle multiplied quickly in areas where little else could turn a profit for Spaniards, including northern Mexico and the Argentine pampas. The capital Lima was built near the Pacific coast. For Spaniards, the fierce Chichimecas barred them for exploiting mining resources in northern Mexico. Edited by Juanita De Barros, Audra Diptee, and David V. Trotman, 35–67.  In addition, the Casa de Contratación took charge of the fiscal organization, and of the organization and judicial control of the trade with the Indies. In 1898, the United States achieved victory in the Spanish–American War with Spain, ending the Spanish colonial era. A classic synthesis of the colonial history of Cartagena de Indias from 1533 to 1810. Scarano, Francisco A. Spanish plight. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. The laws were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in the Americas, particularly with regards to treatment of native Indians in the institution of the encomienda. Benedict. Cuba: Economía y sociedad. The governors exercised judicial ordinary functions of first instance, and prerogatives of government legislating by ordinances. 87-88. In the early period for Spaniards, formal ownership of land was less important than control of indigenous labor and receiving tribute. Patterns set in this early period of exploration and colonization were to endure as Spain expanded further, even as the region became less important in the overseas empire after the conquests of Mexico and Peru.. David Lambert explores how this system changed the region, and how enslaved people continued to resist colonial rule. Stanford University Press, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMecham1966 (, Burkholder, Mark A. In 1574, Philip II promulgated the Order of Patronage (Ordenaza del Patronato) ordering the religious orders to turn over their parishes to the secular clergy, a policy that secular clerics had long sought for the central areas of empire, with their large indigenous populations. The four main colonial powers in the Caribbean were the Spanish, English, Dutch, and French. , Most Spanish settlers came to the Indies as permanent residents, established families and businesses, and sought advancement in the colonial system, such as membership of cabildos, so that they were in the hands of local, American-born (crillo) elites. The ideas from the French and the American Revolution influenced the efforts. Although the structure of the indigenous cabildo looked similar to that of the Spanish institution, its indigenous functionaries continued to follow indigenous practices. Cook, Noble David. "Kurakas and commerce: a chapter in the evolution of Andean society." Includes contributions by Alfredo Castillero-Calvo, Franklin W. Knight, Francisco Moscoso, Frank Moya Pons, Jalil Sued-Badillo, and Enriqueta Vila Vilar. But the importation of horses transformed warfare for both the Spaniards and the indigenous. Cortés’s seeking indigenous allies was a typical tactic of warfare: divide and conquer. The development of creole languages is sometimes mistakenly … The former Caribbean colonies of the Netherlands achieved various degrees of independence within the Dutch kingdom. As the indigenous populations declined, the need for corregimiento decreased and then suppressed, with the alcaldía mayor remaining an institution until it was replaced in the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms by royal officials, Intendants. Based on published primary and secondary sources. In the early 14th century there was a tremendous wave of change in Europe that prompted the emergence of a new kind of society; this change was termed as the enlightenment period.  For the Andean area, there are an increasing number of publications as well. , The exploitation and demographic catastrophe that indigenous peoples experienced from Spanish rule in the Caribbean also occurred An archaeological project analyzes informal commerce in the colonial Caribbean by Universitat Pompeu Fabra - Barcelona Excavations on the island of Klein Bonaire. Viceroyalties were the largest territory unit of administration in the civil and religious spheres and the boundaries of civil and ecclesiastical governance coincided by design, to ensure crown control over both bureaucracies. There is debate about the impact of ranching on the environment in the colonial era, with sheep herding being called out for its negative impact, while other contest that. During a financial crisis in the late seventeenth century, the crown began selling Audiencia appointments, and American-born Spaniards held 45% of Audiencia appointments. Early British settlements include Bermuda (1612), Saint Kitts (1623), and Barbados (1627). Missions were established with royal authority through the Patronato real. The following year, the first Spanish settlements were established in the Caribbean. These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas. During the early Age of Discovery, the diocesan clergy in Spain was poorly educated and considered of a low moral standing, and the Catholic Monarchs were reluctant to allow them to spearhead evangelization. The largest population in Spanish America was and remained indigenous, what Spaniards called "Indians" (indios), a category that did not exist before the arrival of the Europeans.  A 2010 film, Even the Rain starring Gael García Bernal, is set in modern Cochabamba, Bolivia during the Cochabamba Water War, following a film crew shooting a controversial life of Columbus. They founded the towns of Coro and Maracaibo. There were also sub-treasuries at important ports and mining districts. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2007. The Kingdom of Portugal authorized a series of voyages down the coast of Africa and when they rounded the southern tip, were able to sail to India and further east.  Then the first such in 1542; the legal thought behind them was the basis of modern International law. (Your identity will remain anonymous)Conéctate conmigo! 142-43. Viceroys were of high social standing, almost without exception born in Spain, and served fixed terms. The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, during the Mexican and US periods of Californian history (1821–1910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the US period (1846–1910).. Powers, Stephen. In central Mexico, there exist minutes of the sixteenth-century meetings in Nahuatl of the Tlaxcala cabildo. "The Bourbon Reforms" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_American_History_and_Culture1996 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBedini1992 (, Cook, Noble David. A colony is a land ruled by another country. Other countries that held possession of various islands at different times were Portugal, Sweden, and Denmark. General History of the Caribbean. breaks new ground in articulating the early Spanish A synthetical survey of Caribbean history emphasizing the formative role played by sugar plantations up through the early 20th century. In the face of the impossibility of the Castilian institutions to take care of the New World affairs, other new institutions were created. One was by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba in 1517, another by Juan de Grijalva in 1518, which brought promising news of possibilities there. With a hostile indigenous population, no obvious mineral or other exploitable resources, and little strategic value, Chile was a fringe area of colonial Spanish America, hemmed in geographically by the Andes to the east, Pacific Ocean to the west, and indigenous to the south. "Papal Responsibility for the Infidel: Another Look at Alexander VI's" Inter Caetera"." Most agriculture and ranching supplied local needs, since transportation was difficult, slow, and expensive. The establishment of large, permanent Spanish settlements attracted a whole range of new residents, who set up shop as carpenters, bakers, tailors and other artisan activities. History of the Caribbean: Plantations, Trade, and War in the Atlantic World. 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