[note 24] According to the Augustan History, Odaenathus declared himself king prior to the battle.  From 1954 to 1956, a Swiss expedition organized by UNESCO excavated the Temple of Baalshamin. Although not much is known of Zenobia’s ancestry, she was likely of noble descent, and may have even been a descendant of Cleopatra. Seland concluded that in the case of Palmyra, the people perceived themselves different from their neighbours and a real Palmyrene ethnicity existed. , With Palmyra gaining importance in the French efforts to pacify the Syrian Desert, a base was constructed in the village near the Temple of Bel in 1921. For instance, his soldiers were said to be lightly armored, as opposed to Zenobia’s men who wore very heavy armor.  In an inscription dated to 252 Odaenathus appears bearing the title of exarchos (lord) of Palmyra. 27 reads. She was married to Odaenathus, the king of the Palmyrene Empire, and she bore him a son named Vaballathus.  In practice, according to several scholars such as Udo Hartmann and Michael Sommer, the citizenry of Palmyra were mainly the result of Arab and Aramaean tribes merging into a unity with a corresponding consciousness; they thought and acted as Palmyrenes.  During the first half of the first century AD, Palmyra incorporated some of the institutions of a Greek city (polis); the notion of an existing citizenship first appears in an inscription, dated to AD 10, mentioning the "people of Palmyra". 272 A.D. Zenobia was the Queen of the Palmyrene Empire from 267 to 272 A.D.  During the Umayyad period, Palmyra was mainly inhabited by the Kalb tribe. Hairan I was described as "Ras" in 251 indicating that Odaenathus was promoted at that time as well.  Al-Ashraf Musa asked the Mamluk sultan Qutuz for pardon and was accepted as a vassal.  On 30 August 2015, ISIL destroyed the cella of the Temple of Bel.  The Palmyrene deity was commonly identified with the Roman god Sol and he had a temple dedicated for him on the right bank of the Tiber since the second century.  French artist and architect Louis-François Cassas conducted an extensive survey of the city's monuments in 1785, publishing over a hundred drawings of Palmyra's civic buildings and tombs.  Minor restorations took place; two Palmyrene funerary busts, damaged and defaced by ISIL, were sent off to Rome where they were restored and sent back to Syria. Italian-Syrian Archaeological Mission of the University of Milan, 360° full-screen photospheric visit of Palmyra, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palmyra&oldid=988121409#Military, Populated places established in the 3rd millennium BC, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 05:59. The Roman army was the largest and meanest fighting force in the ancient world. Zenobia was the Queen of the Palmyrene Empire from 267 to 272 A.D.  The Palmyrenes constructed an extensive irrigation system in the northern mountains that consisted of reservoirs and channels to capture and store the occasional rainfall.  In 2013, the façade of the Temple of Bel sustained a large hole from mortar fire, and colonnade columns have been damaged by shrapnel. 19 reads. , Zenobia began her military career in the spring of 270, during the reign of Claudius Gothicus. By recruiting horsemen from Iberia, Gaul, Numidia and Thrace, Roman cavalry adapted to accommodate the army's changing needs and resources.  The primary income-generating trade good was silk, which was exported from the East to the West. Under French Mandatory rule in 1932, the inhabitants were moved into the new village of Tadmur, and the ancient site became available for excavations.  Palmyra was given to Toghtekin's grandson, Shihab-ud-din Mahmud, who was replaced by governor Yusuf ibn Firuz when Shihab-ud-din Mahmud returned to Damascus after his father Taj al-Muluk Buri succeeded Toghtekin.  The city had other cemeteries in the north, southwest and southeast, where the tombs are primarily hypogea (underground).  The Palmyrene route connected the Silk Road with the Mediterranean, and was used almost exclusively by the city's merchants, who maintained a presence in many cities, including Dura-Europos in 33 BC, Babylon by AD 19, Seleucia by AD 24, Dendera, Coptos, Bahrain, the Indus River Delta, Merv and Rome.  According to this theory, "Tadmor" derives from the Hurrian word tad ("to love") with the addition of the typical Hurrian mid vowel rising (mVr) formant mar. Growing out of Syria, it soon encompassed Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and most of Asia Minor. For the modern city, also known as Tadmur, see, Palmyrene loculi (burial chambers) reassembled in the, The statue of Al-lāt (equated with Athena) found in its temple (destroyed in 2015), Bel's temple entrance arch remains after the destruction of the cella, Digital reconstruction of the Temple of Bel (New Palmyra project).  Some scholars, such as Andrew M. Smith II, consider ethnicity a concept related to modern nationalism, and prefer not to describe the Palmyrenes with ethnic designations they themselves did not know, concluding that there is a lack of evidence regarding what ethnicity the Palmyrenes perceived themselves. of Phyle Φυλή) comprising several sub-clans.  The relocation was completed in 1932; ancient Palmyra was ready for excavation as its villagers settled into the new village of Tadmur. , With the elevation of Palmyra to a colonia around 213–216, the city ceased being subject to Roman provincial governors and taxes.  The personnel of Efqa spring's sanctuary dedicated to Yarhibol belonged to a special class of priests as they were oracles.  Aramaic Palmyrene inscriptions themselves showed two variants of the name; TDMR (i.e., Tadmar) and TDMWR (i.e., Tadmor).  Their role was similar to the Roman genius: tutelary deities who guarded individuals and their caravans, cattle and villages. , An alternative suggestion connects the name to the Syriac tedmurtā (ܬܕܡܘܪܬܐ) "miracle", hence tedmurtā "object of wonder", from the root dmr "to wonder"; this possibility was mentioned favourably by Franz Altheim and Ruth Altheim-Stiehl (1973), but rejected by Jean Starcky (1960) and Michael Gawlikowski (1974). From the beginning of its history to the first century AD Palmyra was a petty sheikhdom, and by the first century BC a Palmyrene identity began to develop.  (It’s not been proven this happened.).  Most of Palmyra still remains unexplored especially the residential quarters in the north and south while the necropolis has been thoroughly excavated by the Directorate and the Polish expedition. [note 17], The earliest Palmyrene text attesting a Roman presence in the city dates to 18 AD, when the Roman general Germanicus tried to develop a friendly relationship with Parthia; he sent the Palmyrene Alexandros to Mesene, a Parthian vassal kingdom.  However, the British general Edmund Allenby persuaded his government to abandon this plan. Because of the uncertainty of the times and the real or perceived threat of imminent invasion on the part of the populace, the Senate, and the military, a man who showed himself a strong, courageous, and – most importantly – effective military leader woul… 13 reads.  Daniel Schlumberger conducted excavations in the Palmyrene northwest countryside in 1934 and 1935 where he studied different local sanctuaries in the Palmyrene villages. With her hold on Egypt secured, she turned her attention to securing Asia Minor and Phoenicia. So how did the powerful queen’s unstoppable soldiers get crushed just like that? Queen Zenobia of Palmyra (ca.240-274 AD) faced a power vacuum following the death of her husband and the disintegration of Roman power in the Near East. , In the 190s, Palmyra was assigned to the province of Phoenice, newly created by the Severan dynasty. , By the twelfth century, the population moved into the courtyard of the Temple of Bel which was fortified; Palmyra was then ruled by Toghtekin, the Burid atabeg of Damascus, who appointed his nephew governor. They commissioned inscriptions, buildings or tombs, and in certain cases, held administrative offices. Zenobia started an expedition against the Tanukhids in the spring of 270, during the reign of emperor Claudius Gothicus aided by her generals, Septimius Zabbai (a general of the army) and Septimius Zabdas (the chief general of the army)  In the south and the east Palmyra is exposed to the Syrian Desert. With an army composed local conscripts, Palmyrene archers and the remnants of …  Two mountain ranges overlook the city; the northern Palmyrene mountain belt from the north and the southern Palmyrene mountains from the southwest.  ISIL forces entered Palmyra the same day. Estimates vary from as low as 30,000 to 200,000; the latter number is doubted considering the environment of Palmyra and its hinterland which makes it difficult to provide the population with the necessary foodstuff. The Battle of Immae was fought in 272 between the Roman army of Emperor Aurelian, and the armies of the Palmyrene Empire, whose leader, Queen Zenobia, … , Until the late third century AD, Palmyrenes spoke a dialect of Aramaic and used the Palmyrene alphabet. Following its destruction in 273, Palmyra became a minor center under the Byzantines and later empires. , Many surviving funerary busts reached Western museums during the 19th century.  A small wadi (al-Qubur) crosses the area, flowing from the western hills past the city before disappearing in the eastern gardens of the oasis. Imperial Army troopers, also known as Imperial Army soldiers, were soldiers that deployed during the reign of the Galactic Empire by the Imperial Army, as its main infantry throughout the galaxy.Formed from eager and often young conscripts, Army troopers served as expeditionary units of the Empire's ground forces, tasked with the subjugation of worlds that dared to resist the Emperor's rule.  The extent of Greek influence on Palmyra's culture is debated. Palmyra served as a border between the Roman Empire and the Persian Empire. The Palmyrene empire at its apex (By Sémhurderivative/CC BY-SA 4.0) In 269AD, however, she made a dangerous gamble. , The deities worshiped in the countryside were depicted as camel or horse riders and bore Arab names. , In 274, following his victory over Palmyra, Aurelian dedicated a large temple of Sol Invictus in Rome; most scholars consider Aurelian's Sol Invictus to be of Syrian origin, either a continuation of emperor Elagabalus cult of Sol Invictus Elagabalus, or Malakbel of Palmyra.  Caravaneers paid taxes in the building known as the Tariff Court, where a tax law dating to AD 137 was exhibited. , The monarchy continued most civic institutions, but the duumviri and the council were no longer attested after 264; Odaenathus appointed a governor for the city. The Empire of Palmyra's national animal is the Sandworm, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests. However, the Roman Empire was undergoing its Imperial Crisis, and internal conflicts prevented the Empire from maintaining control far beyond the borders of Rome. 1 year 201 days ago. She began by annexing Egypt in 270 A.D., defeating the Roman army led by Probus, admiral to Emperor Claudius II Gothicus.  On 18 August, Palmyra's retired antiquities chief Khaled al-Asaad was beheaded by ISIL after being tortured for a month to extract information about the city and its treasures; al-Asaad refused to give any information to his captors. In 270 A.D., she broke off friendly relations with Rome and began taking over their lands.  The Sasanians disbanded Palmyrene colonies in their lands, and began a war against the Roman Empire.  The Palmyrenes were noted archers. This act greatly benefitted the Romans and served the strengthened ties between the two empires.  During the late second century Rome formed the Cohors XX Palmyrenorum, which was stationed in Dura-Europos. (It’s not been proven this happened.  The Palmyrenes evacuated to Parthian lands beyond the eastern bank of the Euphrates, which they prepared to defend.  Little painting, and none of the bronze statues of prominent citizens (which stood on brackets on the main columns of the Great Colonnade), have survived. Palmyra (Empire Divided) Shock Cavalry Palmyrene Lanciarii The charge of a lancer sends enemies flying, often in more than one piece. During the Syrian Civil War in 2015, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) destroyed large parts of the ancient city, which was recaptured by the Syrian Army on 2 March 2017. E.g.  The relation between Malakbel and Sol Invictus can not be confirmed and will probably remain unresolved.  Scholars interpreted the Palmyrenes' Greek practices differently; many see those characters as a superficial layer over a local essence.  To protect the borders with Persia, Zenobia fortified different settlements on the Euphrates including the citadels of Halabiye and Zalabiye.  The king and his son were assassinated during their return in 267; according to the Augustan History and Joannes Zonaras, Odaenathus was killed by a cousin (Zonaras says nephew) named in the History as Maeonius.  Gallienus dispatched his prefect Heraclian to command military operations against the Persians, but he was marginalized by Zenobia and returned to the West.  The Mamluks intervened militarily several times, dismissing, imprisoning or expelling its leaders.  The Ottoman governor of Syria, Mehmed Rashid Pasha, established a garrison in the village to control the Bedouin in 1867. , Since Palmyra was not on the main trading route (which followed the Euphrates), the Palmyrenes secured the desert route passing their city.  Sheikh Zabdibel, who aided the Seleucids in the battle of Raphia (217 BC), was mentioned as the commander of "the arabs and neighbouring tribes to the number of ten thousands"; Zabdibel and his men were not actually identified as Palmyrenes in the texts, but the name "Zabdibel" is a Palmyrene name leading to the conclusion that the sheikh hailed from Palmyra.  Some caravans were financed by a single merchant, such as Male' Agrippa (who financed Hadrian's visit in 129 and the 139 rebuilding of the Temple of Bel). [note 15] The Romans included Palmyra in the province of Syria, and defined the region's boundaries.  Classical Palmyra had a distinctive culture, based on a local Semitic tradition, and influenced by Greece and Rome.  That year, Marwan ordered the city's walls demolished.  However, according to Appian Palmyra was wealthy enough for Mark Antony to send a force to conquer it in 41 BC. He captured it easily but forbade his men from sacking it.  During the first century Palmyra developed from a minor desert caravan station into a leading trading center,[note 21] with Palmyrene merchants establishing colonies in surrounding trade centers. The Empire of Palmyra.  In 1919, as the British and French argued over the borders of the planned mandates, the British permanent military representative to the Supreme War Council Henry Wilson suggested adding Palmyra to the British mandate.  Palmyra's military was led by strategoi (generals) appointed by the council.  In 1751, an expedition led by Robert Wood and James Dawkins studied Palmyra's architecture. Eventually they were able to g…  In 261 Odaenathus marched against the remaining usurpers in Syria, defeating and killing Quietus and Balista.  On 20 January 2017, news emerged that the militants had destroyed the tetrapylon and part of the theater. Crime, especially youth-related, is totally unknown. [note 9] To appear better integrated into the Roman Empire, some Palmyrenes adopted Greco-Roman names, either alone or in addition to a second native name. Wikimedia CommonsQueen Zenobia addressing her soldiers.  The Arab newcomers were assimilated by the earlier inhabitants, used Palmyrene as a mother tongue, and formed a significant segment of the aristocracy. The crisis reached its zenith when Britain and France broke away to form the Gallic Empire, and the Palmyrene Empire conquered large parts of the Roman East. , Odaenathus was succeeded by his son; the ten-year-old Vaballathus.  Behind the theater were a small senate building and the large Agora, with the remains of a triclinium (banquet room) and the Tariff Court. 3.  The high priest of Bel's temple was the highest religious authority and headed the clergy of priests who were organized into collegia each headed by a higher priest. Queen Zenobia’s Last Look Upon Palmyra, painted by artist Herbert Gustave Schmalz in 1888.  The Palmyrenes buried their dead in elaborate family mausoleums, most with interior walls forming rows of burial chambers (loculi) in which the dead, lying at full length, were placed.  The Babylonian cult of Bel-Marduk influenced the Palmyrene religion and by 217 BC the chief deity's name was changed to Bel.  Sarcophagi appeared in the late second century and were used in some of the tombs. However, other dates have been suggested ranging from as early as. The historian Rudolf Fellmann suggested that this building was the royal palace.  A noticeable change is the lack of development of aristocratic residences, and no important public buildings were constructed by locals, indicating that the elite diminished following the campaign of Aurelian.  The second view, supported by some philologists, such as Jean Starcky, holds that Palmyra is a translation of "Tadmor" (assuming that it meant palm), which had derived from the Greek word for palm, "palame".  Although merchants used the patrons to conduct business, their roles often overlapped and a patron would sometimes lead a caravan.  Five years earlier, Syrian geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi described Palmyra's residents as living in "a castle surrounded by a stone wall". The inscription is in bad shape but the letters' form, especially the four-branched, The attribution of Palmyra annexation to Tiberius was supported by Seyrig and became the most influential.  Palmyra hosted an Akitu (spring festival) each Nisan. The exact year for when Palmyra first made use of some Greek institutions is not known; the evidence that specifically identify Palmyra as a polis is not extensive, and the earliest known reference is an inscription dated to AD 51, written in Palmyrene and Greek, mentioning the "City of the Palmyrenes" in its Greek section. , The population of the city started to decrease in the ninth century and the process continued in the tenth century. , Palmyra's population was a mixture of the different peoples inhabiting the city, which is seen in Aramaic, Arabic and Amorite names of Palmyrene clans,[note 4] but the ethnicity of Palmyra is a matter of debate.  As evidence, he cited the inexplicability of alterations to the theorized roots of both names (represented in the addition of -d- to tamar and -ra- to palame).  In 1882, the "Palmyrene Tariff", an inscribed stone slab from AD 137 in Greek and Palmyrene detailing import and export taxation, was discovered by prince Semyon Semyonovich Abamelik-Lazarev in the Tariff Court.  Seyrig started with the Temple of Bel in 1929 and between 1939 and 1940 he excavated the Agora. , Also north of the wadi was the Great Colonnade, Palmyra's 1.1-kilometre-long (0.68 mi) main street, which extended from the Temple of Bel in the east, to the Funerary Temple no.86 in the city's western part.  Palmyra was a minor trading center until its destruction in 1400; according to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi, Timur's men took 200,000 sheep, and the city was reduced into a settlement on the desert border whose inhabitants herded and cultivated small plots for vegetables and corn.  The church is dated to the Justinian age, its columns are estimated to be 7 metres (23 ft) high, and its base measured 27.5 by 47.5 metres (90 by 156 ft).  Goods were carried overland from the seaports to a Nile port, and then taken to the Egyptian Mediterranean ports for export. The social change and the reduction of the aristocratic elite is hard to explain.  The council remained, and the strategos designated one of two annually-elected magistrates. Changing Palmyrene Identities in the Third Century AD", "Syria's ancient oasis city of Palmyra threatened in fighting", "Isis's destruction of Palmyra: 'The heart has been ripped out of the city, "Palmyra Update: Major Restorations Ready to Launch as Global Partners Await Security", "Syrian regime 'launches air strike on world famous ancient city of Palmyra, "Palmyra: Will ISIS bulldoze ancient Syrian city? Palmyra (/ˌpælˈmaɪrə/; Palmyrene: Tadmor; Arabic: تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. The Palmyrenes converted to Christianity during the fourth century and to Islam in the centuries following the conquest by the 7th-century Rashidun Caliphate, after which the Palmyrene and Greek languages were replaced by Arabic.  This duumviri implemented the new colonial constitution, replacing the archons.  The 4-hectare (9.9-acre) camp was a base for the Legio I Illyricorum, which guarded the trade routes around the city.  Most of the hypogea were excavated jointly by the Polish expedition and the Syrian Directorate, while the area of Efqa was excavated by Jean Starcky and Jafar al-Hassani.  At the beginning of the 11th century BC, King Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria recorded his defeat of the "Arameans" of "Tadmar"; according to the king, Palmyra was part of the land of Amurru.  The Amherst Papyrus indicates that the ancestors of the Elephantine Jews were Samaritans.  ↑ A Palmyrene monument was discovered near Newcastle in England; it was set by a Palmyrene named Baratas, who was either a soldier or a camp follower. [note 20] The Romans used Palmyrene soldiers, but (unlike typical Roman cities) no local magistrates or prefects are recorded in the city.  Thirty clans have been documented; five of which were identified as tribes (Phylai Φυλαί; pl. The city became a Roman colonia during the third century, leading to the incorporation of Roman governing institutions, before becoming a monarchy in 260. So Zenobia took control, ruling the Palmyrene Empire as regent. Others say that she never made it to Rome at all, having either starved or poisoned herself on the journey back.  Not all Palmyrenes accepted the dominion of the royal family; a senator, Septimius Haddudan, appears in a later Palmyrene inscription as aiding Aurelian's armies during the 273 rebellion.  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