governments of central america during the cold war era


Recent studies of diplomatic and military history have shown that the Cold War in Latin America was a multifaceted contest between various regional proponents of communism and capitalism. Local opposition to foreign rule in the US and European colonial empires, and social movements aiming to displace traditional elites elsewhere, confronted a strong US preference for reliably anti-Communist (and thus conservative to right-wing) regimes. Central America, 1981–1993. However, institutional destruction proved much harder than institutional reorganization and creation, making the entire governing apparatus more complex over time. DoD, meanwhile, was continually subjected to reconfiguration pressures, but their unique military expertise prevented significant “spin-off” effects as occurred with the State Department. This combined political and economic challenge caused the United States to assist Guatemalan counterrevolutionaries and neighbouring Central American … Centralization also limited debate to expedite decisions and conferred greater responsiveness to presidential direction. To understand how and why the United States became involved in Central American wars during the 1980s, it is necessary to examine preceding developments and patterns: the hegemonic role played by the United States in the region, U.S. support for rightist authoritarian regimes, Cold War fears of “communist subversion,” and human rights reform. In fact, it's been seen over and over again in world history as countries seek to police who does and doesn't get to be their neighbor. Soviet leaders feared and distrusted the United States, which was the only country with the atomic bomb — and which had used it. For starters, let's define what we mean by t… The Central American crisis began in the late 1970s, when major civil wars and communist revolutions erupted in various countries in Central America, causing it to become the world's most volatile region in terms of socioeconomic change. The strategic stalemate that prevented a direct military conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union displaced violent superpower competition to areas of the Third World where the two blocs could invest in local and regional wars without risking direct confrontation. The sharp reduction in economic aid to Central America further indicated that there would not be much official thinking or regretting about the Cold War in Latin America. On the foundations of the National Security Act, Cold War organization for gray zone-like activities was remarkably elastic and responsive to presidential administrative styles. When it comes to their neighborhood, people can get pretty intolerant. In its prosecution of the Cold War in the Third World, the United States enjoyed formidable advantages over its Soviet rival. Only serious Congressional and public political mobilization could blunt the aggregation of covert powers. Nevertheless, the pre-Cold War foreign policy organizations were forced to adapt or be threatened continually with irrelevance. Governments that collaborated closely with the United States often had to ignore or suppress local interests opposed to US policies. Congress itself organized committee structures to reflect the major departments and agencies established by statute, an impediment to reorganization in general and to oversight when interagency task forces and other ad-hoc arrangements were the primary mechanisms of policy execution. The drastic reductions in national security institutions at the end of World War II were comparatively free of extensive institutional infrastructure and legal impediments much beyond the U.S. Constitution. 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