In South America, the controversial project Pascua Lama aims at exploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of Atacama Desert, at the border between Chile and Argentina. , After initial production, gold is often subsequently refined industrially by the Wohlwill process which is based on electrolysis or by the Miller process, that is chlorination in the melt. The gold alloys' slight malleability facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns. The more details you give on your situation, the better we can help you. Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction. It does not react with aqueous, solid, or molten sodium or potassium hydroxide. , Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, which is also its only naturally occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Minoan jewellery; 2300–2100 BC; various sizes; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), Pair of Sumerian earrings with cuneiform inscriptions; 2093–2046 BC; Sulaymaniyah Museum (Sulaymaniyah, Iraq), Ancient Egyptian statuette of Amun; 945–715 BC; gold; 175 mm × 47 mm (6.9 in × 1.9 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, Ancient Egyptian signet ring; 664–525 BC; gold; diameter: 30 mm × 34 mm (1.2 in × 1.3 in); British Museum (London), Ancient Greek stater; 323–315 BC; 18 mm (0.71 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, Etruscan funerary wreath; 4th–3rd century BC; length: 333 mm (13.1 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, Roman aureus of Hadrian; 134–138 AD; 7.4 g; Metropolitan Museum of Art, Quimbaya lime container; 5th–9th century; gold; height: 230 mm (9.1 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, Byzantine scyphate; 1059–1067; diameter: 25 mm (0.98 in); Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA), Pre-Columbian pendant with two bat-head worriors who carry spears; 11th–16th century; gold; overall: 76.2 mm (3.00 in); from the Chiriqui Province (Panama); Metropolitan Museum of Art, English Neoclassical box; 1741; overall: 44 mm × 116 mm × 92 mm (1.7 in × 4.6 in × 3.6 in); Metropolitan Museum of Art, French Rococo glass bottle mounted in gold; circa 1775; overall: 70 mm × 29 mm (2.8 in × 1.1 in); Cleveland Museum of Art, "Gold" is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃- ("to shine, to gleam; to be yellow or green"). Depression, epilepsy, migraine, and glandular problems such as amenorrhea and impotence were treated, and most notably alcoholism (Keeley, 1897). , Low-grade gold ore may contain less than one ppm gold metal; such ore is ground and mixed with sodium cyanide to dissolve the gold. Although the gold ion is toxic, the acceptance of metallic gold as a food additive is due to its relative chemical inertness, and resistance to being corroded or transformed into soluble salts (gold compounds) by any known chemical process which would be encountered in the human body. In a monetary system known as the gold standard, a certain weight of gold was given the name of a unit of currency. Only 10% of the world consumption of new gold produced goes to industry, but by far the most important industrial use for new gold is in fabrication of corrosion-free electrical connectors in computers and other electrical devices.  From these surface exposures the basin dips extensively, requiring some of the mining to occur at depths of nearly 4,000 m (13,000 ft), making them, especially the Savuka and TauTona mines to the south-west of Johannesburg, the deepest mines on earth. Kalgoorlite is an iron-black mineral, with sub-conchoidal fracture occurring at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. Only the mercury isotope 196Hg, which occurs with a frequency of 0.15% in natural mercury, can be converted to gold by neutron capture, and following electron capture-decay into 197Au with slow neutrons.  It most often occurs as a native metal, typically in a metal solid solution with silver (i.e. Krennerite is similar in composition and appearance to calaverite but is orthorhombic. The ISO 4217 currency code of gold is XAU. For gold(III) complexes, reduction to gold(0/I) under physiological conditions has to be considered. Some European king and queen's crowns were made of gold, and gold was used for the bridal crown since antiquity. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.  The Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning "glow". As of 2017[update], China was the world's leading gold-mining country, followed in order by Australia, Russia, the United States, Canada, and Peru. Gold is similarly unaffected by most bases. 2, Mineral occurrence data sheets, occurrence lists and mineral occurrence maps, December, 2001.  In such cases, gold has a fractional oxidation state. Many cyanide spills from gold mines have occurred in both developed and developing countries which killed aquatic life in long stretches of affected rivers. Some 22% of all the gold that is ascertained to exist today on Earth has been extracted from these Witwatersrand rocks. 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